Monogeneans are a course from parasitic flatworms which can be commonly receive towards the fishes and lower aquatic invertebrates

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05/08/2022|Quản Trị Viên

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Monogeneans are a course from parasitic flatworms which can be commonly receive towards the fishes and lower aquatic invertebrates

This short article by Peggy Reed, Ruth Francis-Floyd, Ruth Ellen Klinger, and you may Denise Petty, on the College from Florida, talks about monogenean parasitic organisms away from fish.

Introduction

Very monogeneans is internet explorer you to definitely move freely into the fishs system epidermis serving toward mucus and epithelial tissues of the skin and gills; although not, a few adult monogeneans will continue to be forever connected with an individual webpages towards the servers. Specific monogenean types occupy the latest rectal hole, ureter, system cavity, as well as the fresh new blood-vascular system. Anywhere between 4,100 and you will 5,one hundred thousand species of monogeneans have been explained. They are found on fishes into the fresh and you can sodium water and you may for the numerous liquid temperature.

Morbidity and mortality epidemics as a result of excess parasite tons aren’t uncommon in the captive fishes while having together with occurred in crazy fishes. Attentive fishes are kept much more congested standards than simply fishes from the surrounding. That it behavior allows hatching monogeneans so you’re able to locate fairly easily host seafood. On top of that, stresses found in the attentive environment like aggressive choices from the tankmates, bad nourishment, and you can poor drinking water quality get change the feature of your fishs immune protection system to answer the presence of the latest parasites. Even if monogeneans can be entirely on nuts seafood, it seldom result in problem or passing from inside the free-ranging populations due to the fact around absolute criteria they usually are not present into the higher wide variety with the personal seafood. Yet not, any transform one leads to crowding from wild seafood, that could were drought and you will diversion away from drinking water, could raise the thickness out of parasitic organisms into the insane seafood and therefore bring about condition. While doing so, the release regarding monogenean-infested fishes with the natural environment might have possibly disastrous outcomes. An example is the way out-of unwilling Atlantic fish Salmo salar regarding Sweden that is thought to be the reason from Gyrodactylus salaris one caused big losses regarding prone salmon from inside the Norwegian streams. Several other example ‘s the advent of monogenean-plagued stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus from the Caspian Ocean on the Lake Aral you to decimated brand new boat sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris populace, that has been maybe not against the monogenean.

Category and you may Personality out-of Monogeneans

Though the terms monogenetic trematodes and you will flukes can be used to define this group of parasitic organisms, they are both incorrect just like the monogeneans are not trematodes otherwise flukes. Actually, he is distinct from others parasitic flatworms, which include turbellarians, tapeworms, and you may trematodes (the real flukes). Trematodes and you may tapeworms that have rare exceptions merely live inside within their machine, and you can turbellarians from time to time parasitize your skin regarding aquatic fishes. From the the posterior avoid monogeneans has a great haptor, specialized holdfast organ who has got hooks or clamps that allow these to affix to the machine (Table step 1). Turbellarians, tapeworms, and you will trematodes don’t have a great haptor. The life course regarding monogeneans in addition to is different from living stage regarding tapeworms and you can trematodes. Monogeneans features a primary lifestyle stage, and therefore they go straight from place of server (seafood to fish). Tapeworms and you will trematodes have an indirect lives duration that frequently needs multiple machines (different varieties of pets).

Monogeneans should be put into one or two big communities, the new monopisthocotyleans, which have connect-such as organs on the haptors to add on their host, therefore the polyopisthocotyleans, which use fasten-such structures getting accessory. The polyopisthocotyleans commonly just like the aren’t recognized since monopisthocotyleans, so they really will not be covered in this article. This new haptor is normally formed such as for example a disk. That three pairs from hook-like formations called anchors otherwise hamuli can be meet me-ondersteuning found in the center of your own haptor. A number of monogenean varieties, brand new anchors are accustomed to put on the newest server by entrance of your own machines body. Anchors are backed by ventral bars, transverse bars otherwise accessory sclerites, which offer stabilizing and/or attachment. Tiny hooklets entitled marginal hooks are located near or towards the this new periphery of your own haptor and are the main form of connection for almost all monogeneans. Suction made out of the fresh new haptor is actually one other way some monogeneans adhere its machine. Particular varieties provides glue glands on the haptor, and have into the direct.

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