No matter if English is an excellent Germanic code, and most of its basic words derives from Old English, addititionally there is a sizeable language you to definitely derives of Relationship (Latin and French). Other affixes, like “-ation”, be restricted.
According to Hans Marchand, throughout the Categories and Sort of Present-Date English Word formation (College out-of Alabama Push, 1969), the brand new suffix -ize arrives originally throughout the Greek -izo. Of numerous conditions finish using this type of suffix passed regarding Ecclesiastical Greek towards Latin, where, because of the 4th millennium, they’d be oriented due to the fact verbs on the end -izare, instance barbarizare, catechizare, christianizare. In Old French we find of a lot including verbs, that belong mainly on the ecclesistical fields: baptiser (11th c.), canoniser (13th c.), exorciser (14th c.).
The first -ize conditions to be found in the English are finance with each other an excellent French and Latin pattern instance baptize (1297), catechize, and you may organize (one another fifteenth c.) Towards the end of sixteenth century, although not, we come across new formations for the English, such as for example bastardize, equalize, popularize, and you will womanize. New certified and you can semantic patterns have been the same as people regarding new borrowed French and you will Latin forms, however, as a consequence of the fresh new renewed examination of Greek, the fresh knowledgeable came into existence much more familiar with the code and you may utilized the brand new activities from Old Greek word-formation easily.
Ranging from 1580 and you may 1700, brand new procedures away from literary works, medicine, pure research and you can theology lead many the brand new words into words. A number of the conditions however active now become criticize, fertilize, humanize, naturalize, satirize, sterilize, and you will signify. The organization from technology discussed vast quantities of -ize structures from 19th 100 years and into 20th.
Brand new -ize terms and conditions compiled because of the youngsters within the contained in this group nine ages ago reveal that -ize is practically completely limited by Love code, the only exceptions i discovered getting womanize and you can winterize. Even when most advanced English speakers are not knowingly familiar with hence words within their language are from hence resource, they have respected which variation for the coining the fresh words.
Brand new component morphemes away from a phrase is prepared into the an effective branching or hierarchical design, both called a tree structure. Think about the keyword useless . It has around three morphemes:
- prefix “un-“
- verb stalk “use”
- suffix “-able”
What is the structure? Is it basic “use” + “-able” to make “usable”, then in addition to “un-” and work out “unusable”? or is it earliest “un-” + “use” and come up with “unuse”, following along side “-able” and make “unusable”? As “unuse” doesn’t are present for the English, if you’re “usable” really does, we like the basic construction, which represents the latest tree revealed less than.
That it studies is supported by all round behavior of these affixes. There is a great prefix “un-” you to definitely attaches to adjectives and come up with adjectives that have an awful meaning (“unhurt”, “untrue”, “unhandy”, etc.). And there is good suffix “-able” one to connects so you’re able to verbs and you may models adjectives (“believable”, “fixable”, “readable”). This provides united states the study envisioned more than. It’s impossible to mix a prefix “un-” yourself on verb “use”, therefore the almost every other logically-you are able to construction won’t works.
- prefix “un-“
- verb stem “lock”
- suffix “-able”
This time, even in the event, a small think reveals all of us there are two various other significance for this keyword: you to definitely equal to the brand new left-hand profile, definition “maybe not lockable,” and a second you to definitely add up to the proper-hands contour, definition “capable of being unlocked.”